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Upholstery and Recovery techniques

The upholstery and re-covering section is broken up in many chapters.
You may, use the links here-under to skip to the parts you like to read, or just read the whole section from the top.
The Chapters are;

  • Maintenance Cleaning and Spot-Cleaning of,
    Fabric, Vinyl, Leather.
  • Repairing the covering of,
    Fabric, Vinyl, Leather.
  • Measuring the cover
  • Stripping of the old
  • Rewebbing from underneath
  • Rewebbing a-new
  • Inserting the Springs
  • Recreating a Hard,- or Rolled-Edge
  • Sewing
  • Hand Sewing
  • Piping and Fancy Edges
  • Diamond buttoning
  • Fluted backs
  • Drop in Seats
  • Stuffed over Seats
  • Easy Chairs
  • Wing,- or Fireside-Chairs
  • Iron hoop Chairs
  • Head boards for beds
  • Cushions and Bolsters
  • Lining Boxes and Cases
  • Tassels, the making of

    Not all the chapters are present at this moment so please bear with us as we do so.
    If the chapter you want is not ready, then please try next week and refresh the page.

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    Maintenance Cleaning and Spot-Cleaning

    Fabric, Vinyl, Leather.
    Fabric

    Regular vacuum cleaning from all upholstery is recommended, as dust makes the fabric duller and dirt particles entrapped within the fabric increases the wear on all fabrics.

    Regularly clean the upholstery at regular intervals, strictly according to the care instructions attached to the furniture.

    Rotate removable cushions, they should be exchanged between chairs and settees to equalize the wear on each cushion.
    Some removable cushions are also reversible, this extends the life of the cushion by reducing the wear on any particular side.
    This is particularly useful where certain seats are habitually used with consequential accelerated wear.

    To equalize wear and discoloration on non removable covers such as backs and arm rests, rotation of chairs and settees within the room is recommended, especially if, a chair is in full sunlight, or more used than others.

    Spot Cleaning

    Remove spills and stains as soon as possible.
    Should upholstery be accidentally soiled, it is essential that the soil be removed immediately.
    More solid soils can be carefully scooped or scraped from the fabric surface.
    Once the excess soil has been removed, spot cleaning techniques can be used to remove the final traces of soil.
    Liquids should be gently mopped with absorbent cloth, sponge, paper tissue or paper toweling.
    Care must be taken to avoid pressing the liquid through the fabric into the cushions.

    CAUTION: The information given on this site is given as a guide only.
    The successful use of this information requires considerable expertise.
    Of course if you are on your Cancun resorts vacation or your Punta Cana resorts vacations (these are just an example) then dust will always built up in the rugs and on things while you are gone.
    Consequently, no responsibility can be accepted for any damage or loss what so ever, which may occur as a result of the use of this information.

    If the soil is of a difficult nature, the proper means of removal is unknown, or a residual stain is left, consult an experienced tradesman or dry cleaner.

    If the stain has dried, break or crush the stain carefully and remove the loose particles by brushing or vacuuming.

    Consult the stain removal guide to select a suitable cleaning agent.
    Follow the recommended sequence.
    Read steps E, F and G before commencing the recommended treatment.
    Apply liquid cleaning agents by wetting a clean cloth with the cleaner.
    Avoid saturating the upholstery, use as little of the cleaner as possible.
    Work from the outside of the stain towards the center of the stain to avoid spreading the stain.
    Turn the cleaning cloth frequently to keep a clean piece in contact with the upholster.
    Blot any excess cleaner with a clean cloth or tissue.
    Cleaners specially made for upholstery should be applied strictly with the makers instructions.
    Dry the cleaned area with a low suction vacuum.
    If the stain is still visible, repeat the cleaning process.
    Allow the cleaned area to completely dry before use.

    STAIN REMOVAL TREATMENTS

    The following stain removal agents are used in the

    STAIN REMOVAL GUIDE

    hereunder;

    A. Dry cleaning solvent or lighter fluid.
    Apply solvent with soft clean cloth.
    Blot excess solvent with clean dry cloth.
    B. Detergent or Upholstery Shampoo (check directions)
    Diluted in warm water.
    Apply detergent solution as a foam.
    Blot with clean dry cloth.
    C. Warm clean water.
    Rinse by sponging with warm clean water to remove all traces of suds.
    Blot with clean dry cloth.
    D. Cold clean water.
    Rinse by sponging with cold clean water.
    Blot with clean dry cloth.
    E. Turpentine.
    Apply turpentine with soft clean cloth.
    Allow to soften stain. Blot with clean dry cloth.
    F. Ice pack.
    Apply ice pack to harden gum.
    Break gum carefully to remove form fabric.
    G. Methylated spirits.
    Apply methylated spirits with soft clean cloth.
    Blot excess with clean dry cloth.
    H. Nail polish remover.
    Apply with soft clean cloth.
    I. Absorbent powder.
    Follow directions on packet.
    Apply powder directly to spill.
    Allow complete absorption and then vacuum.

    STAIN REMOVAL GUIDE

    This table provides the recommended treatments for each type of stain.
    The numbers given for each type of stain correspond to the treatments types in the previous section.
    Try each recommend treatment until the stain has been removed.

    STAIN TYPE
    TREATMENTS

    Alcoholic Drinks
    excluding beer and wine

    ABC-

    Baked Beans

    BC--

    Beer

    BC--

    Beet root

    BC--

    Blood, fresh

    D---

    Butter

    ABC-

    Candle wax

    E---

    Candy

    ABC-

    Chewing gum

    FA--

    Chocolate

    ABC-

    Coffee

    BC--

    Cooking oil

    ABC-

    Cough syrup

    BC--

    Crayon

    ABC-

    Cream

    ABC-

    Excrement

    BC--

    Fat

    ABC-

    Fruit juice

    BC--

    Gravy and sauce

    CBC-

    Ice cream

    BC--

    Ink - ball point pen

    GBC-

    Fountain pen,
    washable

    DBC-

    Fountain pen,
    permanent

    AGBC

    Lipstick

    ABC-

    Mayonnaise

    ABC-

    Milk

    CBC-

    Mud

    BC--

    Nail polish

    H---

    Oil

    ABC-

    Paint oil based

    EABC

    Paint water based

    DABC

    Polish

    ABC-

    Soft drink

    DBC-

    Soup

    ABC-

    Spaghetti

    BC--

    Tea

    BC--

    Urine

    DBC-

    Wine

    DBC or I-

    Difficult stains may require a cleaning solution as recommended by your furniture manufacturer.
    Always test any solution or cleaning agent on a inconspicuous place for colorfastness or other negative effects.
    Never soak upholstery materials as dirt in the underlaying materials might be drawn up, to leave long lasting stains.
    Old materials may be made brighter by sponging them with a material brightener.
    After the covering is cleaned it might be wise to apply "Stainguard", it inhibits the penetration of the stain into the fibers of your fabric, and is therefore our recommended treatment to help combat future spills and stains.
    Stainguard is kind to both you and the environment. It's nontoxic, hypoallergenic and biodegradable.
    Stainguard is invisible and odorless, and it won't affect the look, feel or texture of your fine upholstery. It's even safe with delicate fabrics such as velvet.
    We're sure that you'll be satisfied with the protection
    Stainguard offers a three year warranty.
    If at any time during the warranty period, you are dissatisfied with the performance of your StainGuard fabric protection treatment, they will professionally clean and retreat any stains, except those resulting from such harsh and unusual agents as dyes, bleaching agents, or acids.
     

    Vinyl

    Vinyls should be regularly cleaned, preferably with a grease repelling detergent, especially those areas which come in contact with human skin.
    The vinyl is actually a micro-foam and oil from human skin and hair is readily absorbed by it, this stiffens the vinyl then if the oils harden so does the vinyl and eventually it will crack.
    Regular cleaning will prevent the vinyl from hardening prematurely.
    Exposure to ultraviolet light causes the vinyl itself to stiffen up and crack.
     

    Leather

    Regularly clean the leather with a damp cloth.
    Then once a quarter treat the leather, with a leather cream or soap, to feed the leather.
    Lanolin or Wool fat which should be one of the main agents in the leather,-soap or,-cream help to prevent to protein chains in leather from deteriorating, thus keeping the leather supple and strong.
    Stainguard's Leather Care System will help to maintain your leather sofa better.
    To inquire about, or order click here.
     

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    Repairing the covering

    Fabric Vinyl Leather
    Fabric

    Torn and frayed upholstery materials can often be repaired by gluing the frayed yarns together and/ or onto a scrap of similar material.
    This scrap of material first gets hot melt glue put upon it and then after cooling is inserted behind the cover trough a small hole, and with a blunt needle this scrap is than worked flat.
    A clothes iron, set on a low setting, is used to bond the frayed material to the backing, in such a manner as to be virtually invisible.
     

    Vinyl

    The repair of tears in vinyl is quite similar to those in fabric, with the exception that the bonding glue is a rubber cement type glue.
    The backing material used, is generally a piece of denim colored to match the vinyl.
    Holes left in the vinyl after the denim is secured in place and the cement is thoroughly dried, may be filled with a vinyl repair mass, mixed in color to match the exact color and shade of the vinyl.
    A grain paper is placed over the mass and slight heat is applied to set the mass.
    The repair should now nearly be invisible.
     

    Leather

    Tears in leather are repaired in a similar manner. Using a scrap of leather which is inserted so, that the rough side of the scrap faces the rough side of the torn leather. After the piece is worked in and flat the glue (P.V.A. glue in this case, because the heat necessary to bond hot melt glue would shrink the leather to such an extend that a hole would appear), is worked in between the scrap and the cover, the use of a syringe or narrow spatula becomes real handy here.
    With masking tape, the torn edges are held together while the glue dries.
    Make sure to remove the tape as soon as possible, after the glue has dried, so as to leave the least amount of damage to the surface.
    Excess glue is removed with a damp sponge before the glue dries.
    Holes or cracks left in the leather can be made invisible by filling them with polyvinyl, this is mixed to the desired color and then applied, a matching grain pattern is then place on top of the polyvinyl and a slight raising of the temperature causes the fill mass to set.
    Scratches in leather can often just be glued back with PVA glue.
    Just put some PVA glue in the scratch and wipe the excess glue of with a damp cloth in the direction which leaves the loose leather stuck in its proper place.
    Make sure nobody touches the scratch whilst drying.
    Scratches from which the loose bits are gone will just have to be colored in with leather color.
    A little leather cream will make the shine come trough and your leather couch will look so much better for it.
     

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    Measuring the cover

    For measuring the upholstery material, it is necessary to realize that most materials have a definite top and bottom as well as a width and length, especially if there is a pattern in the material.
    Sometimes this is printed on the self edge.
    Some materials are Railroaded this means that the width of the material is in the length of the roll, this is done so pieces of a great width don't have to be sewn together (Chaise-Lounge or Davenport seats).
    One also needs to decide where a pattern should be once the upholstery is done, and how this relates to the pattern on the other pieces and on the edges.
    With flowery patterns make them look natural, flowers and buds grow upwards and stems or stalks start at the bottom.
    If in doubt hold or pin the material against the place where it should go, step back to visualize what it is going to look like once finished.
    Velours and Velvet are "piled" fabrics they have a pile or nap which should always run downwards, to avoid dirt being trapped in it.
    So on the back, arms and sides the nap runs downwards and on the seat the nap runs forward, that is from the back to the front.
    Don't be to scrimpy when measuring for material, one needs to be able to pull the material tight, the new stuffing and springs will require more space, and it is better to have some over, for repairs or mistakes, then to have to go back for that one piece, only to find that the roll is sold out and the new roll is from a differing batch and has a different coloring.
    Set out a table with at least 5 columns; Name of piece,Length, Width, Off cut length, width.
    See sample below.
     

    Name of piece Length Width Off Cut
    length width

    Seat

    _____________________________

    Back inside

    _____________________________

    Back outside

    _____________________________

    Back sides

    _____________________________

    Arm outer

    _____________________________

    Arm fronts

    _____________________________

    Front lower

    _____________________________

    Piping

    ____________________________

    Total

    _____________________________

    In the first column enter All the pieces starting with the largest, and naming Left and right hand pieces separately as you'll want the pattern to be on each, at the same place, but running in opposite directions.
    Add the difference needed to allow the pattern to be in the right place.
    The pattern often gives its repeat length and width.
    Edges on cushions should also have the same pattern on the same place, this should also match with the pattern of the piece on which it lays.
    Piping can be run at 45o degrees, if the pattern is otherwise to obtrusive, your discerning insight is required here.
    After filling in the first 2 columns calculate the off cut and note it down, then see if the next piece fits in this, some times allowing a little extra on the first bit allows you to get another piece out of the off cut, also remember that the off cut runs trough past the next piece.
    Once everything is noted, add up the lengths of the first column, if railroaded the second column, disregarding the pieces which comes out of the off cut.
    This will give you the total length off the material needed, order a little more for the obvious reason.

     

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    Stripping of the old

    The stripping of a chair or couch frame is reasonably easy and of course the first rule of stripping applies here as well;
    Everything that is stripped of will have to be replaced.
    Therefore,

    • Ask yourself what it is exactly, you want to achieve.
    • Don't strip of more than is necessary.
    • Check how things were done before you strip it.
    • Keep the old covers, they might serve as a pattern.
    • Keep under upholstery, until the job is finished for referral
    • Some times hard edges and special pattern under upholstery can be resewn into the new upholstery saving large hunks of time.

    If you have to do a set of chairs it might be wise to keep one or two chairs intact, until at least one of the set is finished this could be handy for referral whilst upholstering the new chair.
    For chairs with hand sewn hard edges, it is some times possible to sew the seat with the hard edge back onto the new hessian of the chair thereby saving lots of time.
    So a little forewarned to the stripping.
    Ask yourself exactly what it is you want to achieve.

    If the chair sits well, but we want a new cover to give a fresh look.

  • Only remove the old cover lay over a new layer of dacron and apply the new cover.
  • If we like the old cover, but there is no spring left in the seat.

  • Take of the webbing, and reweb and/ or respring the chair.
  • If the seat is gone as well as the under upholstery.

  • Cut of the seat cover and remove al the upholstery for replacement.
  • For removal of the upper upholstery cut it of with a sharp knife close to the nails right to the timber and remove cover and padding in one go so this can be examined during the replacement of the new padding.
    Then cut the webbing and cut the hessian so removing hessian webbing and springs still sewn together.
    This way we are still able to check how the springs were sewn in when we are sewing the new ones in.
     
    Now using a small crowbar or ripping chisel remove al the nails, by putting the tool under the had and giving it a small tap with the mallet turning the tool at the same time should remove the nail.
    If not, use the side cutters to pick it out and put the nails in a tray or jar, so that you don't step in them all the time.
    Reglue any splinters which break of or splits which occur during the removal of those nails.
    Having the frame nude it is the perfect opportunity to examine the construction and if necessary reglue the frame.
    We recommend using epoxy glue as a little extra expense is more than compensated by the extra bonding quality of the epoxy, especially with use in regluing.
    Check for any missing pieces and put pieces in where necessary.
    Check the polish and if necessary freshen up or repolish.
    That's it the chair is ready for re-upholstery, next step the webbing.
     

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    Rewebbing from underneath


    An important problem with a lot of upholstered furniture is broken webbing, that are the straps underneath, which carry the upholstery.
    In order to rectify this problem, many people put new webbing over the existing webbing, but we find this an unsatisfactory solution, as it is virtually impossible to apply the right tension on those new straps and due to the bulkiness of more than one layer of webbing it is often visible.

    Thereto we like to employ the following method for this problem.
    We remove the old webbing and resew the springs to the under layer of hessian, if there are large holes in the hessian then insert a new layer of hessian , sew this to the old upholstery and tack to the sides, then sew the springs back in the same place as they where, you had them marked as to place and direction of course!

    Now using two or three plastic tie-backs, pull each spring down until flat enough to be lower than the surrounding structure.
    Now we are ready to apply the new webbing and tightening it as normal, using a web-stretcher.

    Webstretcher.gif

    A free pattern for web stretchers is available by

    After all the webbing is on, we cut the plastic tie-backs and remove them, this releases the spring against the webbing, so all we have to do is straightening them and sew them to the webbing.
    This simple method often restores the seating to new like Quality

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    Rewebbing a-new


    If you are rewebbing a chair that has a polished back then put a blanket over the work bench so that the edge of the bench doesn't damage the back.
    First nail the end of the webbing onto the front rail (if the number of webs used is even then of center or if it is odd then in the center).
    Make sure that you have folded the end over for about 2.5 cm or 1", to avoid ripping the webbing during use.
    Now stretch the webbing as tight as you can using a web-stretcher, and fasten on the opposite site, then cut of a little extra and fold this back and fasten so that it is double.

    Webstretcher.gif

    A free pattern for web stretchers is available by

    The first web is done from front to back center most, then the center most web is put on side to side, now two webs are put on front to back next to the first one, then two are put on side to side weaving them underneath the first web, and so adding webs and weaving them until the whole underneath is filled similar to the way it was before.
    Webbing done ?
    Okay lets do the springs.
     

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    Inserting the Springs


    Check the springs on the old upholstery for size ( height and gauge ), although there are a lot of upholsterers whom re-use the old springs (they stretch them to increase their springiness), I prefer to use new ones as it doesn't make economic sense, to spent all that effort only to have a spring sag or break, a few short months after re-upholstery.
    Place the springs onto the webbing and sew them tight.
    For ease of fastening the hessian cover I use plastic tie-backs (cable-ties) which I put on the springs to pull the springs down before insertion.(2-3 per spring)
    Then I fasten the hessian cover, really tight, making sure that the edge where I fasten it, is doubled-up to stop fraying.
    That done, turn the chair upside down and cut the plastic tie-backs to release the springs.
    Work them in place on the hessian and sew them tight.
    Next thing the padding.

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    Recreating a Hard,- or Rolled-Edge


    The recreation of a hand sewn hard-edges is only necessary if the old one is really gone or if you have altered the number of springs.Else you can sew a strip of hessian to the old hessian and refasten the old padding, just fill it out with new padding and dacron, to the required level.
    If there is no hard-edge or you don't want one then don't put them on, but I think that on most chairs it really looks a lot neater, giving the chair more shape and definition.
    For those whom think that recreating a hand sewn hard-edge is to much work there are pre-manufactured hard-edges available which only needs fastening unto the chair. Although those haven't got the same shape as the hand-sewn ones.
    After the hessian is put over the springs and the springs are sewn in, we put the under filling on the seat, this, according to where you live probably is, coir fibres (coconut fibre) or crin or Algerian fibre.
    But will herein be referred to as stuffing.
    For extra strength on the edge it is best to make some bridles along the edge of the chair those stuffing ties are stitched back loops about 4" or 10 cm long and 1" or 2.5cm high and about 1" or 2.5 cm from the edges and nailed down on the corners sometimes with a loop there as well.
    Now taking a hand full of stuffing this is put between the bridles to form a nice firm edge all around the seat slightly overhanging the timber and smoothly following the shape of the seat, taking especial care on the corners to ensure a good corner.
    Having a nice firm edge al round the center may now be filled in an even handed way, so that it is slightly domed.
    A layer of hessian (10 oz or 300gr) is put over this to contain the fibre.
    Fastening the hessian temporarily first in the middle of the sides and then on the corners.
    We will now fasten the hessian working from the center to the corners.
    I first tack at 1½" or 4 cm. and then fill in between them so that it ends op being tacked at ¾" or 2 cm. intervals.
    Doing the corners last is best to ensure a regular height it may be necessary to put some extra stuffing into the corners underneath the hessian before tacking them down.
    Make two nice pleats at the corner so that is all smooth.
    This layer may be regulated after the hessian is put on, by putting a regulator trough the hessian and moving the filling from "lumps" to "holes".
    But having it laid on previously very evenly avoids a lot of work here.
    Now some stitches are sewn trough the hessian at about 4" (10 cm.) intervals and about that distance from the edge into a spiral pattern towards the center. These are for holding the stuffing in place.
     
    For the roll,-or hard-edges two rows of blind and one row of trough stitching are used.
    The first layer of blind stitching is done with a double ended needle
    Threaded the needle is inserted from the front, first near the corner just above the timber and pulled so that the threaded part is in the stuffing there it is twisted anti clock wise, thus looping around some stuffing, and the returned to exit just above the timber but about ¾" or 2 cm. along.
    The beginning of the thread is then tied off to this.

    Now we reinsert the needle about 1½" or 4 cm. further along repeat the process but return the needle so that it exits between the last stitch and there where we inserted the needle.
    As the needle emerges we loop the thread which passes by from going to there where we inserted the needle three times around the needles and then pull the needle right through this, thus fastening the stitch.
    This process is then repeated by inserting the needle an 1½" or 4 cm. past the last insertion point.
    So we'll stitch right around the seat.
    Use your regulator again to smooth out any uneven patches.
    Bees or Paraffin wax rubbed on your twine will make it go more smoothly through the materials.

    The second row of blind stitches are done in the same manner but about ½" or 1 cm. above the first row.

    Before stitching the roll,-or hard-edge we'll draw a line using the upholstery-gauge
     
    In the near future I will insert drawings here to show how.
     
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    Sewing


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    Hand Sewing


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    Piping and Fancy Edges


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    Diamond buttoning


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    Fluted backs


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    Drop in Seats


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    Stuffed over Seats


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    Easy Chairs


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    Wing,- or Fireside-Chairs


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    Iron hoop Chairs


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    Head boards for beds


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    Cushions and Bolsters


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    Lining Boxes and Cases


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    The making of Tassels


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